The Convention and Protocol make special provisions for the specific needs and special circumstances of least developed and developing countries and apply the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities” with regard to such countries.

The principle recognizes that the developed country parties should take the lead in combating climate change and the adverse effects thereof.

Therefore, many developing countries like Guyana and least developed parties (termed NonAnnex I parties) that have ratified the protocol are not legally obligated to any emission reduction target at this stage.

The Conference of the Parties to the Convention (COP) is the “supreme body” of the Convention, as it is its highest decision-making authority. Parties to the Convention like Guyana meet regularly to take stock of progress in implementing their obligations under the convention, and to consider further actions to address the climate change threat.

Since the establishment of the UNFCCC, many mechanisms and initiatives to address climate change have been developed and implemented at the international, regional and local levels.